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Are there different types of trafficking?

Irish legislation specifies the following types of exploitation - Sexual Exploitation, Labour Exploitation, exploitation consisting of the removal of one or more of the organs of a person, exploitation consisting of forcing a person to engage in criminal activity. 

Human trafficking for labour exploitation

People who have been trafficked for the purpose of labour exploitation are typically (but not exclusively) made to work in sectors such as: agriculture, construction, entertainment, service industry, manufacturing and domestic servitude as well as begging. Trafficking involves the recruitment, movement, harbouring or receiving of a person through means such as fear, fraud and deception, coercion, force or the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, for the purpose of their sexual or labour exploitation, forced criminality or the removal of the organs of a person.

The following are possible indicators of having been trafficked for labour exploitation:

  • Work excessively long hours
  • Be forced to undertake hazardous work
  • Have low or no salary
  • Have no access to your earnings
  • Have no contract of employment
  • Have your labour rights infringed
  • Live with the family employing you
  • Live in groups in the same place where you work, and leave those premises infrequently
  • Not be dressed adequately for the work you do: for example you may lack protective equipment or warm clothing
  • Depend on your employer for a number  of services, including work, food, transportation and accommodation
  • Be made to pay for tools, food or accommodation and have these costs deducted from your wages
  • Have no tax or PRSI contributions and no access to social supports
  • Have your social activities and movements controlled by your employer
  • Never or rarely leave the house without your employer
  • Have no privacy, sleeping in shared and over-crowded spaces
  • Be given only leftover food to eat
  • Have no choice of accommodation offered to you
  • Never leave the work premises without your employer
  • Be unable to move freely
  • Live in degraded, unsuitable places, such as in agricultural or industrial buildings
  • Be subject to security measures designed to keep you on the work premises
  • Be disciplined through fines and threats
  • Be subjected to insults, abuse, threats or violence
  • Lack basic training and professional licenses
  • Work in places with no health and safety notices, with poor quality equipment and in hazardous conditions
  • Be unable to show an identity document
  • Be working without the employment documents required for workers from your country
  • Be afraid to reveal who is controlling you and lie about your story
  • Equipment is designed or has been modified so that it can be operated by children.
  • Have untreated injuries or illnesses, be in poor health or have untreated wounds
  • Children may be unregistered with a school or have an excuse why this should be, such as being schooled at home or just arrived into the country

In relation to begging, there are some specific indicators of human trafficking such as:

  • Children, elderly persons or disabled migrants who tend to beg in public places and public transport
  • Children of the same nationality or ethnicity who move in large groups with only a few adults or with the same adult guardian, or
  • ive as gang members with adults who are not their parents, or
  • Participate in the activities of organized criminal gangs

Human trafficking for sexual exploitation

The following are possible indicators of having been trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation:

  • Be of any age, although the age may vary according to the location of the market
  • Move from one brothel to the next or work in various locations
  • Live in groups in the same place where you work, and leave those premises infrequently
  • Depend on your employer for a number  of services, including work, food, transportation and accommodation
  • Be escorted whenever you go and/or return from work and other outside activities
  • Have tattoos or other marks indicating ‘ownership’ by your exploiters
  • Work long hours or have few if any days off
  • Sleep where you work
  • Live or travel in a group, sometimes with other women who do not speak the same language
  • Have very few items of clothing. Taken into account with other indicators clothing may give an indication of a female being involved in prostitution.
  • Only know how to say sex-related words in the local language or in the language of the client group
  • Have no cash of your own
  • Be disciplined through fines and threats
  • Be unable to show an identity document
  • Be afraid to reveal who is controlling you and lie about your story
  • Be subjected to insults, abuse, threats or violence
  • Your mobile phone keeps ringing when you are out.
  • Live with the person employing you.
  • Be unable to move freely
  • Be subject to insults, abuse, threats or violence
  • Have a mobile telephone containing text messages with addresses to find locations
  • Have untreated injuries or illnesses, be in poor health, have sexually transmitted diseases, blood borne viruses etc.
  • Children exhibiting sexualized behaviour or language. 

Human trafficking for removal of organs

People who have been trafficked for the purpose of the removal of the organs of a person may:

  • Have unexplained scarring in kidney area
  • Show signs of inexpert surgery/ infections.